Extraordinary gifts were given to the church through the Old and New Testaments for service. 10:29), the Spirit of Adoption (Rom. 13:14). The disciple will understand that he is indwelt by the Holy Spirit. 2) His distinction from the Father and the Son, and His mission from both, prove His personality (John 15:26). Psalm 139:7 says, “Where can I go from Your Spirit? The arguments surrounding the procession of the Spirit are historically viewed and classified in three epochs: The first epoch was during the rise of Greek theology until the time of Epiphanius. Augustine, in contrast to the British monk Pelagius who opposed sovereign grace, wrote vehemently against Pelagius for the truth. Though Justin the martyr speaks of the Holy Spirit, Tertullian is the first to use the term “Trinity” dogmatically. ). He is called the Spirit of God (Rom. For Paul says in Romans 8:9, “But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. Here we find the filioque clause that was debated between the Eastern and Western Church. Stated differently, God is one in essence and three in person. 8:9), the Spirit of His Son (Gal. The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit formed the capstone of George Smeaton’s teaching. Oftentimes, the teaching of the Spirit surrounded discourses on living water (John 7:37-39). One leads to a first conversion, the other to a continual holiness. These are adopted as sons, and are assured by the Spirit of their sovereign election (Rom. The doctrine of the Spirit has always been violently attacked by various writers through the centuries, and defended by others who uphold orthodoxy. 9:20; Isa 63:11-14). At other times, such as the Great Awakenings under the preaching of men like Jonathan Edwards, we find curious outpourings of the Spirit on His people for the purpose of revival and sanctification. Summary of Doctrine of the Holy Spirit. How to Deal with Those Who Differ from Us - by Dr. Roger R. Nicole, Ph.D. Hypocrites and Christ - by Rev. Purpose: The purpose of this session is to introduce the disciple to the biblical doctrine of the Holy Spirit, and to see clearly what the ministry of the Spirit is in his life. - A Timeline of the Bible, Why All Should be Thankful - by William Cooper, Why NT Wright is NOT Reformed - by Rev. Their answer must have shocked him somewhat, for they replied, “We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost” (Acts 19:2). Truths surrounding the Trinity and the person of the Holy Spirit are directly related. 5:17). In all cases, the mission of the church (to convert souls and proclaim the kingdom) and the primary relationship of the church to Christ (to worship God) have never changed. This effusion of the Spirit made a great change on all the powers of the apostles, whether we look at the further sanctification of their heart (since they had previously been converted) or their empowerment for service. The Greek Church was overrun, so to speak, with allusions to the Holy Spirit all through their worship liturgy. The Spirit proceeds forever from the Father. Such a gracious salvation and indwelling of the spirit (walking in Him) is of the Christian in any age. The Spirit is not the Father and is not the Son, but distinct from both. Abraham himself, called a prophet, had the Spirit indwelling him (Gen. 20:6). Therefore, using the Greek explanation, pneumatology is the doctrine or study of the Holy Spirit. Nor is it strange when Christ says, “Receive ye the Holy Spirit (John 20:22).” This refers to the gifting of the Holy Spirit for service, in which the apostles would take up in Jerusalem. Hosea 9:7 states that Hosea himself was a man of the Spirit. The Holy Spirit is a personal being just as the Father and the Son. It will consist of two parts. Acts 2:33 says, “Therefore being exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He poured out this which you now see and hear.” This is where the actual mission of the Comforter is stated and is sent by the Messiah from His throne room to the Church organically binding together the whole Church to the Head. The Personhood of the Holy Spirit Even the kings, such as David, were endowed with special office-gifts in order to fulfill their function as king. He has done so, so we can be redeemed from sin and know what is true and right (2 Timothy 3:16). The Lord Jesus taught about the nature of the Covenant when He spoke of Himself as receiving the Father’s command (John 10:18), and of the Spirit as not speaking of Himself, but glorifying Christ, and of taking of His teachings and showing them to the disciples (John 16:14). The first degree of this anointing of the Spirit took place at his incarnation (Luke 1:35; Luke 2:40). 12:11). He reveals His word to His people (1 Cor. For the Christian, the Spirit is also the Spirit of prayer (Eph. 6:11). May this be a help to you. 8:14; Ezek 36:27). Jesus and the apostles in speaking of the Spirit’s work were not speaking some new language that threw off their hearers. Christ’s cause on the earth is advanced through the Spirit, through individuals who are indwelt by the Spirit. Take a moment to check out these solid, biblical Christ-glorifying works that will help you draw closer to the Savior. Below we will use these four broad categories to outline what Wesley believed and taught about the person and work of the Holy Spirit. doctrine of the Holy Spirit beyond the other resources in this issue.6 ... A helpful summary of biblical scholarship regarding the Spirit of God prior to 188 Snook 3Anyone interested in these recurring disputes about the Spirit may want to consult a collection of essays by Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant theologians, Conflicts about the Holy Spirit, ed. doctrine of the Holy Spirit beyond the other resources in this issue.6 THE SPIRIT IN SCRIPTURE:BIBLICAL ROOTS OF THE DOCTRINE7 A helpful summary of biblical scholarship regarding the Spirit of God prior to 188 Snook 3Anyone interested in these recurring disputes about the Spirit may want to consult a collection of essays by With the teachings of Christ, there are two main divisions about the Spirit, 1) those which describe the Spirit’s work in conversion, and 2) those which describe the Spirit’s work on the mind of the apostles and of the Church in general. The second degree was given at His baptism (John 1:33). With Christ, though, it is very much different. The divine personality of the Spirit was not less known and not less recognized in the Old Testament in comparison to the New Testament. In creating a definition, it would be most helpful to give the Spirit descriptive character traits based on Scripture first. His maxim still stands, “Lord, command what Thou will, but grant to us what Thou commandest.”. 1 Doctrine of Scripture Summary God revealing himself to us means that God has communicated with us. Cite reasons why understanding the doctrine of the Holy Spirit has been and continues to be difficult. The Spirit teaches (John 14:26), guides (John 16:13), and glorifies Christ (John 16:14). These men continued the line of Reformation Theology that placed preeminence on the sovereign power of the regenerating work of the Spirit on the believer. Amyraldius is worthy of mention as far as heretics go. 14:5), the word of wisdom (1 Cor. The Spirit was poured out upon the one hundred and twenty of the Upper room – those who waited upon the Lord’s command. But it has no power, without the Holy Ghost, to work the righteousness of God, that is, spiritual righteousness; since the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, 1 Cor. These definitions express three crucial truths: (1) the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are distinct Persons, (2) each Person is fully God, (3) there is only one God.The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are distinct Persons. The contrast between one and the other mainly rests on extent the Spirit was given to the Messiah, and His actions to send the Spirit from the throne of God. Jesus demonstrates, emphatically, that men must be born again, or born from above, which is the work of regeneration on the heart of the wicked (John 3:3). Man, one being among all things, is also created and filled with the breath of life, or a special operation of the Spirit imparting His image upon man. In this way we can extract a definition instead of creating one to overlay what men believe “person” should mean. He laid stress on the doctrine of the Holy Spirit and wrote very acceptably On Grace and Free Will. 12:11). This follows that no 1 is truer than the other. The work, seen here thus far, is the same work that the Spirit accomplishes all through redemptive history, whether in the Old Testament or New Testament. The Arminian Articles and Opinions read, “No one is rejected from life nor from the means sufficient for it by an absolute antecedent decree,, so that the merit of Christ, calling, and all the gifts of the Spirit can be profitable to salvation for all, and truly are, unless they themselves by the abuse of these gifts pervert them to their own perdition; but to unbelief, to impiety, and to sins, a means and causes of damnation, no one is predestined.” In reaction to this synergistic error that finds no support in the Bible, the Synod of Dort fought for the Sovereign work of the Spirit in the following articles: In Head 3/4:8, “Nevertheless, all who are called through the gospel are called seriously. Understand the nature (the deity and personality) of the Holy Spirit. He is not the spirit or the ghost of Jesus that follows Jesus. Arius believed that the Spirit was simply a created forced used by God. Smeaton was an outstanding nineteenth-century Scottish theologian. They were brought before the second General Council of which Athanasius was a part, and they were condemned as heretics. 4) His appearance under a visible form at the baptism of Christ and on the day of Pentecost proves His personality. 21 This ministry guarantees … Those regenerated are then made new creatures (2 Cor. Though solid teaching on the Holy Spirit abounded in the early church and its literature, so did the heresies. 9:2; 42:1; 44:3; 59:19-21; 61:1). 3:7). Doctrine of the Last Things Holy Spirit: Pneumatology Computer Users: Place the cursor over the title to get a description of the book, click the title to go directly to WorldCat. They sometimes lose and sometimes win. An overview of the resources for the study of categories common to Systematic I, II, and III, The Holy Spirit in Biblical Teaching, Through the Centuries, and Today, Chad Brand (Editor); Ralph Del Colle (Contribution by); H. Ray Dunning (Contribution by); Larry Hart (Contribution by); Stanley Horton (Contribution by); Walter C. Kaiser (Contribution by), John Stott; Michael S. Horton (Foreword by). Doctrine of the Holy Spirit; Doctrine of Man; Doctrine of Sin; Doctrine of Salvation; Doctrine of the Church; Doctrine of the Last Things; Holy Spirit: Pneumatology Computer Users: Place the cursor over the title to get a description of the book, click the title to go directly to WorldCat. He drew a distinction between natural and moral ability so as to place the power of choice back into the hands of the sinner. When the Apostles says “the Spirit was not yet given” (John 7:39) he is speaking comparatively, not absolutely, as is always the case between the Old Testament and the New Testament. This withdrawal of the Spirit is called “spiritual death (2 Cor. The same numerical divine essence is common to three divine Persons known as the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site. There is no new theology. Psalm 95:7 and Heb. - by C. Matthew McMahon, Atonement and the Covenant of Grace - by Hugh Martin (1821-1885), Bio of Loraine Boettner - by Dr. C. Matthew McMahon, Can You Really Tell a Tree By its Fruit? 8:9; Gal. 4:13) who produces such faith by a saving call and change of the depraved heart, one of stone, into a heart of flesh that beats for God. The Filling of the Holy Spirit: A key passage in this discussion is Ephesians 5:17-18 which reads, "Therefore do not be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is. Rutherford, Blair, Henderson, Owen, Charnock, Goodwin, Howe and others wrote extensively on the work of the Holy Spirit. Objectives. It is most helpful, then, to define the Spirit and arrive at the definition than to define “person” and suit the Scriptures to a man-made definition. Sproul’s The Mystery of the Holy Spirit. George Smeaton - The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit. 5. The change of gender in John 16 to the demonstrative pronoun (eikenos) demonstrates personality when it refers to “He” all through the passage. Owen’s masterpiece, The Work of the Holy Spirit, is one of the best treatises in print on the subject. If we look closely at this statement, we see that Wesley’s doctrine of the Holy Spirit was Trinitarian in structure, while soteriological, epistemological, and eschatological in emphasis. 4:13).” The same Spirit of faith in the Old Testament is the same of the New Testament. The Spirit is involved throughout Paul’s writings as the action of the whole application of redemption. The Spirit inhabits the whole man and renews him (Romans 8:9). Dr. Samuel Davies (1723-1761), The Covenant of Redemption Between the Father and the Redeemer - by John Flavel (1627–1691), The Cross in Revelation - by Dr. C. Matthew McMahon, The Cross: A Call to the Fundamentals of Religion - by Bishop J.C. Ryle, The Devil's Advertising - by Dr. C. Matthew McMahon, The Divine Trinity - by Dr. Herman Bavinck, The Doctrine of Continuous Creation - by Dr. C. Matthew McMahon, The Doctrine of Endless Punishment - by Dr. William G.T. A short summary of this paper. The same Spirit of faith in the New Testament filled believers in the Old Testament (2 Cor. This our Savior teaches in the parable of the sower (Matt. All the Gospel evangelists refer to the Spirit’s work in connection with His birth, baptism and temptation. (Gen. 41:38).” The blessing of Abraham and the promise of the Spirit were always bestowed upon all those that believed God and His promises. With Elizabeth, Zacharias and Simeon they were filled with the Holy Spirit and gave forth divine announcements of the divine will (Luke 1:42, 67, 2:25). History of the Pentecost The Classical Pentecostal doctrine of the baptism in the Holy Spirit was first formulated at the turn of the twentieth century. - by Thomas Watson (1620-1686). ASSEMBLIES OF GOD THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY PNEUMATOLOGY: THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT A PAPER SUBMITTED TO DR. JAMES RAILEY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 800/THE 532 SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY II (DIRECTED RESEARCH) BY Brian P. Roden Little Rock, AR April 2016 … For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit, or Holy Ghost, is the third person of the Trinity, the Triune God manifested as God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, each entity itself being God. Augustine’s work on free will and the Spirit’s role in man’s will was written against the Manicheans who held to a defective view as well. Generally this includes such topics as the personality of the Spirit, the deity of the Spirit, and the work of the Spirit throughout Scripture. "...search the Scriptures..." (John 5:39). This God is a Trinity of persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit; each person distinct from the other two: the Father is not the Son nor is the Father the Holy Spirit, the Son is neither Father nor Spirit and the Spirit is neither Father nor is the Spirit the Son, yet this God remains one.” The doctrine of the Trinity then is a summary statement of Christian faith and experience. On this ground they are evidenced to be children of the Spirit, adopted by God, and having a filial relationship with God as His children. 6:17). Today, many Christians are turning back to the puritans to, “walk in the old paths,” of God’s word, and to continue to proclaim old truth that glorifies Jesus Christ. Their order of subsistence is the ground and reason there are three names or designations of the Godhead – Father, Son and Holy Spirit. 6) The way in which He is distinguished from His gifts proves His personality (1 Cor. Part 1 … The “Word of God” in Scripture refers to God, his philosophy or reason and also refers to his Son Jesus Christ (John 1:1, Colossians 3:16, John 1:14). One of the most comprehensive treatments of the New Testament witness to the Spirit is through the Apostle John and his letters. Though the Spirit may have been more sparingly imparted, this never voided the same work of the Spirit in the Old Testament as in the New Testament (Num. When the apostle speaks of the Spirit not yet being given, as with the apostle John, he is not talking about location. But the Spirit of grace enables them to fight their way out of every temptation (1 Cor. In the practical application of the work of the Spirit upon the Christian, one may divide His work into the three sections that Romans outlines: regeneration, spiritual-mindedness, and walking after the Spirit (Romans 8:4, 6, 9). In the Old Testament the Holy Spirit is never actually said to be “sent” since this would be done officially by the office of the Mediator. The Spirit applies the work of redemption to the individual in what theology calls regeneration. 3. Such is the case with His carrying along the prophets to speak and write down the Word of God. And being thus made one with Christ, they are truly regenerated and made partakers of him and all his benefits.” The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion state, “Wherefore they which be endued with so excellent a benefit of God be called according to God’s purpose by His Spirit working in due season; they through grace obey the calling; they be justified freely; they be made sons of God by adoption; they be made like the image of His only-begotten Son Jesus Christ; they walk religiously in good works; and at length by God’s mercy they attain to everlasting felicity.”. Even Joseph is said to have the Spirit of God in him when Pharaoh commented, “Can we find such a man as this – a man in whom the Spirit of God is? The Holy Spirit accommodated the message through prophets which resembles a mother’s accommodation to the capacity of her infant. The Spirit then convicts and sanctifies the individual by purging unbelief (John 16:8). This demonstrates to us that the Holy Spirit was active in the Old Testament in the work of imparting the superhuman gift of prophecy to a few, and the comforting power of the Spirit to many. this philosophy failed to pull attending specially the formal definition of the tenet. A short summary of this paper. From beginning to end, the Holy Spirit has always been active: In the beginning, creating, and at the end of the story, tending to us. And do not get drunk with wine, for that is debauchery, but be filled with the Spirit." This work on the Holy Spirit, while not the easiest read, is very helpful. This is done by faith which involves the teaching of the Father (John 6:45), the drawing of the Son (John 12:32) and the life-giving power of the Spirit (John 6:63). Hebrews 9:14 states, “how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?” The Son of God, moved and animated by the Holy Spirit, offered Himself without spot or blemish as an atoning sacrifice. Though they did not change their minds on the subject, the formulated creeds of Christendom teach that the Spirit proceeded from both the Father and the Son. In general the doctrine is supported by the names and titles of the Holy Spirit, His identification and association with God, His procession and relation to the Holy Trinity, His divine attributes, and His many divine works. The disciple will understand that the Holy Spirit is a person related to the godhead—He is God. Sabellianism was the first anti-Trinitarian heresy found in the church. There is one God or divine essence. 19 Absence of the Holy Spirit is the mark of the unsaved. Passages that refer to Christ being filled with the Spirit, or the Spirit given to Him without measure are stated historically, not theology. In all this, though, the Greeks and Latins were overwhelmed by the teachings of the Western Church by exegesis rather than just attempted human logic. However, the principal assailants of the deity of the Spirit were the Macedonians. His view of Christ’s work and the application of it to the believer were defective. In terms of the deity of the Spirit, it is proved by the procession of the Spirit from God, and the incommunicable acts of creation and providence as ascribed to the Spirit (Gen. 1:6; Psalm 33:6; Job 26:13). This results in a Christian that is constantly becoming more and more Christ-like through the Holy Spirit’s illuminating, guiding, equipping, and empowering toward a life that reflects Christ-like character. Historically and exegetically truths about this doctrine are classified within the larger framework of the Trinity. Some think that He is simply a force or a guide. The Spirit anointed Him supremely for His official work (Matthew 3:11). As John 16:13 says, “for He will not speak on His own authority, but whatever He hears He will speak; and He will tell you things to come.”. The disciple will understand that he is indwelt by the Holy Spirit. It is through the Spirit that we come to experience God’s grace. John 16:14 states, “He will glorify Me, for He will take of what is Mine and declare it to you.” The Son is eternally generated from the Father, and hears what the Father commands and speaks. 2. it is understood that the Doctrine of the Holy Spirit like other philosophies have no particular attendings but besides took opportunity in being noticed. The Church is the organic completion of the united body to the Head – Jesus Christ. This was also part of His temptation in the wilderness where the Spirit drove Him there to be tested. Should Christians believe the Scriptures are inspired and a production of the Holy Spirit? 1. Church, or the form in which the Church dogmatically holds the doctrine. The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit (Part 1 – The Nature of the Holy Spirit) Trinity Baptist Church Discipleship Training Introduction: This study will focus upon the third person of the Godhead or Trinity. This does not mean the Greek Fathers were perfect in their conceptions of the Spirit theologically – far from it. Understand the nature (the deity and personality) of the Holy Spirit. One of the most neglected topics in the history of the church is the theology surrounding the Holy Spirit and His Work. In terms of the historical nature of the Spirit’s work, the early fathers often did not set forth the best theology. Thomas Boston (1676-1732), One Special Duty - Thankfulness - Thomas Manton (1620-1677), Personal Prayer Outline - by C. Matthew McMahon, Practical Godliness by Vincent Alsop (1629-1703), Recapitulation in Revelation 20:1-10 - by Dr. R. Fowler White, Seeing Jesus, The Misplaced Faith of Idolaters - by Dr. C. Matthew McMahon, Solomon’s Folly: The Revival of Religious Syncretism in America - by Dr. C. Matthew McMahon, Spiritual Scotoma - by Dr. C. Matthew McMahon, Thanksgiving for Mercies Received - by John Flavel (1630–1691), The Biblical Doctrine of the Trinity - by Dr. Benjamin B. Warfield, The Compassion Of Christ To Weak Believers - by Rev. They would receive even more of the Spirit in Jerusalem as they awaited a greater outpouring for their Gospel service. by William Kelly 1906. Some in self-assurance do not even entertain the Word of life; others do entertain it but do not take it to heart, and for that reason, after the fleeting joy of a temporary faith, they relapse; others choke the seed of the Word with the thorns of life’s cares and with the pleasures of the world and bring forth no fruits. The Spirit illuminates through His indwelling presence within the individual (John 16:16; 2 Tim. 1:14; Rom. Since Adam forfeited the Spirit in the garden, it is now part of the history of redemption to gain back the Spirit by God’s gracious work through Christ and through the Spirit’s work on the heart. In the work of sanctification it is important to note the work of Christ for the Christian in comparison to the work of the Spirit in the Christian. The addendum reads, “And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, and Giver of Life, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; who spake by the Prophets.”. The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit The “Personhood” of the Holy Spirit. that the doctrine of the Holy Spirit was sufficiently exhibited and apprehended from the first dawn of Revelation, though it was fully displayed only on the day of Pentecost. Systematic … In the office of Mediator, in human flesh, the Lord Jesus received the unction of the Spirit. They believed the Holy Spirit was a creature that derived its life from Christ. The Spirit has personal characteristics. Thomas Watson (1620-1686), Twenty Motives that Christ Might Have the Love of Your Hearts - by Rev. Luther says, “We have need of the Spirit of Christ, without whom all our works are worthy of condemnation.” The Reformed Confessions echo these sentiments. The efficacious operation of the Spirit presupposes God’s sovereign election on certain individuals to receive the benefits of Christ’s death for them. Sabellius arose around AD 200 and taught that God wore three masks (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) which completely detracted from the reality of a triune God and made out of Him a single entity that deceives through personality schizophrenia. The same numerical divine essence is common to three divine Persons known as the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. As John 6:63 states, “It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh profits nothing.” Such a sovereign regeneration (a change of the heart from stone to beating flesh) is by the blowing will of the Spirit (John 3:1-8). The greatest event in all of history next to the incarnation, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ is the giving of the Comforter by the Messiah. The Spirit of God, who enlightens us to hear and understand God’s Word, then takes that knowledge and guides us in living it. Fred Greco, The Puritan Practice of Meditation and Pondering God: Thinking Rightly Through Godly Meditation, The Puritans: All of Life to the Glory of God by C. Matthew McMahon, Westminster Standards - 1647 Westminster Confession of Faith. The image of God that Adam was first created in was wholly corrupted and defiled by his sin in the garden under the temptation of the devil (Gen. 3:1-15; John 3:6). In believers Paul notes that the Spirit is the Spirit of Grace (Heb. It is important to note that the term “person” is not a biblical term and is very much capable of being twisted and turned to suit a heretical notion. Sabellius believed that the Holy Spirit was merely a divine influence that was part of the three masks of God. Ezekiel was extraordinarily involved in the Spirit’s prophetic work (Ezek. Now the enthroned Messiah seated at the right hand of God would send the Holy Spirit. Paul draws attention to the reality that Christ and the Spirit work together for the good of the church and the glory of God (2 Cor. The doctrine of the Holy Spirit is called Pneumatology. - by Zacharias Ursinus (1534-1583), Where Did the Bible Come From? Conferring divine revelation was officially binding upon the church, where divine illumination helps the believer understand the Word of God. 1:13). When the Bible speaks about the personality of the Spirit, it speaks in terms of mind, will and spontaneous action. 2:24; 8:3; 11:24; 36:25-27). Throughout the greater part of church history one of the most neglected among doctrines is the biblical teaching concerning the Person and Work of the Holy Spirit. Divine attributes are ascribed to Him (1 Cor. The Holy Spirit joins together every regenerated member of the Church to the Head to create a complete body. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His.” If one does not “have” the Spirit, (e;cw (ekh’-o) meaning 1) to have, i.e. This order of Persons is from eternity. Those who are illuminated and are indwelt by the Spirit are called by the Spirit (Gal 5:18; Rom. 1. Here the Holy Spirit took the place of Christ’s physical bodily presence, and instead, was sent to fill that void spiritually. The Holy Spirit is the third person of the Holy Trinity — God the Spirit. There is and has only been one church and one Spirit in the Old Testament and the New Testament. 11:17; 27:18; Deut 34:9; Neh. Arianism is still active today through the Jehovah’s witnesses, and various other cults such as New Age have turned the Spirit into a force, such as the Manicheans of old. 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